When companies sue their former employees on the ground that they allegedly breached a broadly-worded noncompete agreement, a common defense tactic has been to file a demurrer, arguing that the complaint fails to state a claim upon which relief can be granted. The thinking was that if the noncompete agreement at issue was overly broad on its face, it would be deemed unenforceable as a matter of law and incapable of supporting a lawsuit. Those days are over, according to Assurance Data Inc. v. Malyevac, an employer-friendly ruling of Virginia’s high court decided earlier this month.
Assurance Data, Inc. (ADI) entered into an agreement with John Malyevac which required Malyevac to sell ADI’s computer products and services. The agreement contained non-competition, non-solicitation, non-disclosure and return-of-confidential-information provisions. A few months after entering into the agreement, Malyevac resigned. ADI filed a complaint in Fairfax County Circuit Court alleging that Malyevac violated the agreement. Malyevac demurred, asserting that the complaint failed to state a cognizable claim.
Like the 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss used in federal court, a demurrer tests the legal sufficiency of the facts alleged in the complaint and determines whether a complaint states a cause of action upon which relief can be granted. When ruling on a demurrer, a court may not decide the merits of a claim. (That’s what trials are for). If a complaint contains sufficient facts to inform a defendant of the nature and character of a claim, the complaint will survive a demurrer.